Acute bacterial meningitis in children presenting to The Children’s Hospital Lahore before and after pneumococcal vaccine in Pakistan National Immunization Program; A comparison

Attia Bari, Fatima Zeeshan, Aizza Zafar, Hasan Ejaz, Humera Javed, Uzma Jabeen, Ahsan Waheed Rathore

Abstract


Objective: To describe bacteriological profile, morbidity and mortality of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in children and to compare these parameters before and after the introduction of Pneumococcal vaccine in Pakistan National Immunization Program.

Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric Medicine of The Children’s Hospital Lahore from January 2012 to December 2015. A total of 503 children one month to five years of age admitted with diagnosis of meningitis were included. Complete blood count, CSF cytology, biochemistry, culture sensitivity and blood culture sensitivity were performed.

Results: Frequency of meningitis decreased by 50% in 2013-2015 (199 [2012] vs 304 [2013-2015). Most children in both groups were under one year of age. More neurological complications were seen in the group 2, 20% vs 17%. CSF culture positivity decreased from 12% to 6.6%. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolation decreased from 5 (2.5%) in 2012 to 4 (1.3%) in 2013-2015. Refusal to take feed (p=0.002), impaired sensorium (p=<0.001), severe malnutrition (p=0.001), prolonged duration of symptoms (p=<0.001) and incomplete vaccination status (0.005) were associated with mortality. Mortality rate decreased from 20 (10%) in 2012 to 17 (5.6%) in 2013-2015 but more children developed neurological sequelae 2.7% versus 1%.

Conclusion: Acute bacterial meningitis mostly affected children <1 year. Frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae and mortality of meningitis decreased significantly after PCV but more neurological complications developed in those children who were unvaccinated in 2013-2015 compared to 2012.

doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.332.11891

How to cite this:Bari A, Zeeshan F, Zafar A, Ejaz H, Jabeen U, Rathore AW. Acute bacterial meningitis in children presenting to The Children’s Hospital Lahore before and after pneumococcal vaccine in Pakistan National Immunization  Program; A comparison. Pak J Med Sci. 2017;33(2):447-451.   doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.332.11891

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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