Cognitive dysfunction in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Objective: To determine the frequency of cognitive dysfunction in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Pakistani population, presenting at a tertiary care Rheumatology setting.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Division of Rheumatology, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from March to June 2016. A total of 43 consecutive patients, who fulfilled the 2012 SLICC (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics) classification criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), were enrolled. Cognitive function was assessed using Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. Demographic data and disease dynamics were collected in a proforma. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as score < 26/30, adjusted for duration of formal education. SPSS version 16.0 for windows was used to analyse data and to calculate frequency of cognitive dysfunction.
Results: Out of 43 enrolled patients, 95.3% were females and 4.7% were males, with mean age of 28.72 ± 9.25 years and mean formal education duration of 10.98 ± 3.29 years. The mean disease duration was 24.21 ± 30.46 months. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) were present in all patients and anti-ds DNA in 93% patients. Cognitive dysfunction according to MoCA score was found in 65.1% (n=28) patients. For patients with disease duration more than two years, cognitive dysfunction was found in 60% patients [p>0.05] and for duration of formal education less than 12 years in 74.1% patients [p>0.05].
Conclusion: In this study, two third of SLE patients had Cognitive dysfunction. Hence, there is an increasing need to recognise and initiate early therapy for this overlooked aspect of SLE with an aim to achieve better quality of life.
How to cite this:Butt BA, Farman S, Khan SEA, Saeed MA, Ahmad NM. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Pak J Med Sci. 2017;33(1):59-64. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.331.11947
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