Frequency of depression among patients with Type-I diabetes in a developing country, Pakistan

Musarrat Riaz, Nazish Imran, Asher Fawwad, Abdul Basit


Objective: To determine the frequency of depressive symptoms among young people with Type-I diabetes.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology & Endocrinology, Karachi, Pakistan from February to December 2015. All People aged between 12-20 years with Type-I diabetes for at least 1 year attending the OPD were included in the study. Information about participants’ demographic characteristics, co morbidities and Complications, current treatment and medications were obtained. Acylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels were checked in all People. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale was used to assess the depressive symptoms in the study participants. A cut off value of ≥ 16 was used to screen for depression. SPSS 19 was used to analyze the results.

Results: Out of 104 people with Type-I diabetes, depressive symptoms were observed in 44 (42.3%) participants. Depressive symptoms were more frequent in females (28/55, 50.9%). Depressed people had more episodes of DKA (11/44, 25%), hypoglycemia (12/44, 27.3%) or hospitalization (7/44, 15.9%) in the last six months which were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are quite common in people with Type-I diabetes. Health care professionals should consider screening youth with diabetes for depression regularly. Further large scale studies are needed to validate our findings.


How to cite this:Riaz M, Imran N, Fawwad A, Basit A. Frequency of depression among patients with Type-I diabetes in a developing country, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2017;33(6):1318-1323.   doi:

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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