Collating Spirometry reference values in Asian children and Adolescents; puzzle out the reasons for variations

Sara Sadiq, Syed Tousif Ahmed, Bina Fawad


Lung function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of different respiratory tract diseases; among them the spirometry is the gold standard technique. The accurate diagnosis, management and monitoring require proper interpretation of the results which depends upon the availability of spirometry reference data for that particular region to differentiate the diseased condition from the normal ones. Multiple studies had been done to find out their own area specific reference ranges but it is still lacking. This need was fulfilled by the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) in 2012, which reported the first global spirometry equation for all of the age groups. But some of the studies reported difference among GLI reference range and the measured range for that particular region. So here is the review of the reference ranges among 35,603 Asian children and adolescents from the 32 studies done specifically in Asia. The aim was to compare them with the study done by GLI team, along with these, tried to rule out the causal factor that are responsible for the variations in the reference ranges among the children and adolescents of different population. The literature was searched by using Google scholar and PubMed during the month of March up to July 2017. The review of all the articles published in Asia, specifically accounting for normal reference ranges in children and adolescent exhibit a wide variation among the reference ranges. This also suggest involvement of multiple modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. So it’s necessary to update the reference ranges for spirometry and its prediction equation as well.


How to cite this:Sadiq S, Ahmed ST, Fawad B . Collating Spirometry reference values in Asian children and Adolescents; puzzle out the reasons for variations. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(2):487-492.   doi:

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