Self-perceived oral symptoms and periodontal inflammatory conditions in habitual naswar dippers
Objectives: To compare self-perceived oral symptoms and clinical (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], clinical attachment loss [CAL]) and radiographic (marginal bone loss [MBL]) periodontal parameters among naswar (NW) and non-naswar dippers (NNW).
Methods: One hundred and forty-two individuals (72 patients consuming naswar and 70 controls) were included. All participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included information regarding demographic characteristics and self-perceived oral symptoms. Clinical periodontal parameters (PI, BOP, PD and CAL) were recorded. MBL was measured on digital panoramic radiographs.
Results: Pain in teeth, pain on chewing, bleeding gums and burning sensation in the mouth was significantly worse among NW than NNW (p<0.01). Clinical periodontal parameters and MBL were significantly high in NW than NNW (p<0.001). There was statistically significant influence of daily use and mean duration of naswar consumption on the severity of PI, BOP, PD (4 to 6 and >6 mm) and MBL among NW group.
Conclusions: Self-perceived oral symptoms and periodontal parameters were worse among naswar dippers. It is highly recommended that naswar dipping should be considered a potential threat that could have major effects on periodontal tissues.
How to cite this:Al-Hamoudi N, Mokeem S, Jabbar TA, Vohra F, Akram Z. Self-perceived oral symptoms and periodontal inflammatory conditions in habitual naswar dippers. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(5):1272-1277. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.345.15418
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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