Outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis requiring intensive care admission: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center of Pakistan
Background and Objective: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease. Patients presenting with severe disease may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Factors predicting mortality and morbidity need to be identified for improving outcome. The objective of this study was to see the outcome of these patient presented to single center over a period of ten years. The secondary objective was to identify the factors responsible for adverse outcome.
Methods: The medical records of adult patients from year 2006 to 2016 requiring ICU admission for AP were reviewed retrospectively. The data was collected on the predesigned Performa for patient’s demographic, etiology, severity of disease and reason of ICU referral. Besides this physiological and biochemical parameters at time of arrival in ICU were also recorded. Management aspects related to disease course including the ICU related complications were also recorded. The outcome was predicted on the basis of mortality and length of stay (LOS) in ICU and hospital.
Results: Total 85 patients were identified of having AP requiring ICU admission. 56% of these cases were referred from emergency. Mean Ranson score (RS) was 2.6 and 2.7, at and after 48 hours of admission. Necrosis was present in 48% of cases. Mean APACHE-II score was 23. Sepsis was the commonest complication in ICU. The median LOS in ICU and hospital was six and 12 days respectively. The overall hospital mortality was 52%, out of which 82% died in ICU. RS at admission and APACHE were correlated well with outcome. Similarly associations of factors like need of vasopressors, ARDS, pneumonia, sepsis and AKI requiring intervention were also related to mortality. Likewise development of necrosis or intra-abdominal hypertension showed increased mortality. Biochemical parameters serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), PH and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were also directly linked to adverse outcome.
Conclusion: AP patients requiring ICU admission represent severe form of disease. There is a need to develop protocol based care, which should be started immediately after hospital admission. This should have special focus on fluid resuscitation and nutritional therapy. Role of simple bed site parameters like BUN needs to be evaluated.
How to cite this:Shafiq F, Khan MF, Asghar MA, Shamim F, Sohaib M. Outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis requiring intensive care admission: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center of Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(5):1082-1087. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.345.15575
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