Infantile Spasms: Clinical profile and treatment outcomes
Background and Objective: Infantile spasm (IS) is one of the severe epileptic encephalopathies which affect children in early two years of life. Our objective was to determine the clinical profile, etiology and outcome of treatment in children with infantile spasms attending tertiary care hospital at Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: This is retrospective study of 36 patients out of 94 registered as IS, aged three months to two years, managed and followed up at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 2010 to 2015. Data of all children with IS was collected from case record. Details including clinical observations, lab investigations, anti-epileptic medications and treatment outcome was collected and analyzed. Patients who received treatment for six weeks to document response were included. The treatment response was categorized as complete response, partial response (>50% improvement) and no response. Data was analyzed on SPSS using descriptive statistics.
Results: Thirty-six patients (38.29%) with IS fulfilled eligibility criteria. The mean ± SD age at presentation was 4.6±2.1 months. Male to female ratio was 2:1. Consanguinity and developmental motor delay was observed in 66.6% and 89% respectively. Symptomatic etiology was predominant (61%) and hypoxic ischemic insult (32%) was the commonest underlying cause. EEG and MRI were diagnostic tools whereas metabolic studies were not helpful. Multiple antiepileptic drugs were used for seizure control and vigabatrin was the most frequently used (88%) drug. Short term treatment response was not different in idiopathic or symptomatic infantile spasms.
Conclusion: Majority of patients had symptomatic infantile spasms and generalized tonic clonic along with myoclonic jerks were predominant seizure types. EEG and MRI were diagnostic in most of cases. Multiple AEDs were required to control seizures and VGB was most common drug (88%) used. Treatment outcome was not different in idiopathic and symptomatic groups.
How to cite this:Kulsoom S, Ibrahim SH, Jafri SK, Moorani KN, Anjum M. Infantile Spasms: Clinical profile and treatment outcomes. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(6):1424-1428. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.346.15869
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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