High prevalence of protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency, and Factor V Leiden mutation as a cause of hereditary thrombophilia in patients of venous thromboembolism and cerebrovascular accident
Objectives: To determine the frequency of Protein C, Protein S (PC & PS), antithrombin deficiency (AT III) and Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) as a cause of thrombophilia in the patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
Methods: It was an observational study conducted at Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All patients referred for thrombophilia screening from July 2009 to June 2012 were screened. Patients with evidence of VTE or CVA were screened for PC & PS, AT III deficiency, and FVL.
Results: Total 404 patients of age between 1-71 years mean 33 ± 14 with male to female ratio of 2.4:1 had evidence of thrombophilia. Two hundred eighteen (54%) patients presented with CVA, 116 (29%) with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 42 (10.5%) with pulmonary embolism (PE), and 28 (7.5%) with portal or mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV). Protein C & S deficiency was detected in 35/404 (8.7%), ATIII in 9/404 (2%), and FVL in 25/173 patients (14.5%). The findings were suggestive of a significant association of FVL mutation for developing DVT (OR=11.0, 95% C I 4.6-26.3), CVA (OR=5.7, 95% C I 2.1-15.1), and PV (OR=5.4, 95% C I 1.3-21.9). PC & PS deficiency was a significant risk factor for developing PE (OR=3, 95% C I 0.8-11.4).
Conclusion: FVL mutation and Protein C & S are the leading causes of thrombophilia with strong association of Factor V Leiden mutation as risk for developing DVT.
How to cite this:Ali N, Ayyub M, Khan SA. High prevalence of protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficiency, and Factor V Leiden mutation as a cause of hereditary thrombophilia in patients of venous thromboembolism and cerebrovascular accident. Pak J Med Sci 2014;30(6):1323-1326. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.306.5878
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