â€œOMICâ€ tumor markers for breast cancer: A review
Breast cancer is a global health issue, and as the tumor burden increases, we need to come up with newer, better technologies which are convenient, cheap, rapid, sensitive with a high specificity. Technological advancements in the field of cancer biomarker has led to the development of techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis and microarray analysis in which genes, proteins and hundreds and thousands of metabolites can be identified with the emergence of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. This research is focused on finding biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, staging, treatment response and targets for chemotherapy, generating a panel of markers which provide better clinical information compared to a single marker in the panel. This review briefly summarizes application of genomics and proteomics followed by key concepts and applications of metabolomics in breast cancer, with the conclusion that an integration of the three â€œOMICâ€ technologies may hold the key to future biomarker discovery.
Sources of Data/Study Selection: The information for this review was collected by searching the Google Scholar and PubMed database for English articles published in the period from 2002 to 2015. The search terms included â€œbiomarkers in breast cancerâ€ along with the following search terms: â€œgenomicsâ€, â€œproteomicsâ€, â€œmetabolomicsâ€, â€œbreast cancerâ€, â€œmass spectrometryâ€, â€œmolecular markersâ€ and â€œcancer biomarkerâ€. We have endeavored to quote only the primary sources. Titles and abstracts of retrieved studies were assessed first followed by selection and retrieval of selected full text articles.
Abbreviations: ASCO â€“ American Society of Clinical Oncology, ER â€“ estrogen receptor, PgR â€“ progesterone receptor, HER2 â€“ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2,CA â€“ cancer antigen, TAILORx â€“ Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment (Rx), MINDACT â€“ Microarray InNode Negative Disease may Avoid ChemoTherapy using MammaprintÂ®, FDA â€“ Federal Drug Authority, GC-TOF-MS â€“ time of flight, LC/ESI-MS â€“ electrospray ionization, PCho â€“ phosphocholine, GPCho â€“ glycerophosphocholine, Cdx-2 â€“ caudal type homebox 2, KiSS1 â€“ Kisspeptin 1, KAL1 â€“ Kallman syndrome 1 sequence, NIST â€“ National Institute of Standards and Technology, HMDB â€“ Human metabolome database.
How to cite this: Hadi NI, Jamal Q. â€œOMICâ€ tumor markers for breast cancer: A review. Pak J Med Sci 2015;31(5):1256-1262. Â doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.315.7627
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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